Empowering Malawi’s Future: Unpacking the National Digitalization Policy 2023–2028


In the rapidly evolving landscape of technology and its impact on economies and societies, nations are recognizing the paramount importance of embracing digital transformation. Malawi, a country with a burgeoning information and communication technology (ICT) sector, has embarked on a visionary journey with its National Digitalization Policy (2023–2028) which will replace the National ICT Policy of 2013. In this detailed analysis, we dissect the policy’s key components, its potential to transform the nation, and whether it is ambitious enough to navigate the dynamic technology landscape over the next five years.

Understanding the National Digitalization Policy (2023–2028)

Malawi’s National Digitalization Policy serves as a blueprint to guide the development and utilization of ICT to drive the country’s progress. This policy comes as a response to the challenges impeding the growth of the sector, ranging from inadequate infrastructure to limited access to ICT services, especially in rural areas.

Policy Objectives and Focus Areas

The core objectives of the policy reflect a comprehensive approach to addressing these challenges and leveraging ICT for holistic development. These objectives encompass:

· ICT Infrastructure Development: The policy prioritizes expanding ICT infrastructure to ensure accessible and affordable connectivity throughout the nation.

· Universal ICT Accessibility: Bridging the digital divide between urban and rural areas, the policy aims to make ICT services accessible to all citizens.

· Governance in ICT Development: By embracing transparency and citizen engagement, the policy seeks to enhance public service delivery through digital channels.

· Human Capital Development: Recognizing the importance of education, the policy strives to equip citizens with digital skills essential for active participation in the digital economy.

· Digitalization: The policy envisions digitizing government processes and functions to enhance efficiency and effectiveness.

· ICT Legal and Regulatory Environment: Clear regulations are crucial to fostering a conducive environment for ICT growth and innovation.

· Research, Innovation, and Technology: The policy encourages the development of a thriving tech ecosystem to foster innovation and technological advancement.

· Cyber Security Resilience: The policy addresses cybersecurity concerns, aiming to safeguard digital infrastructure and promote online safety.

Addressing Past Shortcomings (comparison with its predecessor the National ICT Policy 2013)

A noteworthy aspect of the policy is its focus on rectifying the limitations of its previous iteration. This includes addressing cybersecurity gaps, enhancing monitoring and evaluation mechanisms, and devising sustainable digitization strategies. Additionally, the policy emphasizes collaboration between the government and the private sector through Public Private Partnerships (PPPs) to foster entrepreneurship and job creation.

The National Digitalization Policy of Malawi represents a significant evolution from its predecessor, the National ICT Policy of 2013. While both policies share a common goal of leveraging technology for development, the new policy reflects a more comprehensive and adaptive approach to the rapidly changing digital landscape.

The National ICT Policy of 2013 primarily focused on ICT as a means to enhance communication, improve service delivery, and stimulate economic growth. It laid the groundwork for ICT development in the country but primarily revolved around infrastructure and connectivity. In contrast, the National Digitalization Policy of 2023 takes a broader view by not only emphasizing infrastructure and connectivity but also incorporating digitalization across sectors. It addresses critical areas such as universal access, governance, human capital development, innovation, cybersecurity, and more. This broader scope reflects an understanding that ICT is not limited to a standalone sector but is an enabler for transformation across various domains.

· Integration of Emerging Technologies

The technology landscape has drastically evolved since 2013, with the emergence of transformative technologies like AI, IoT, and blockchain. The National ICT Policy of 2013 did not extensively account for these technologies, as they were still in their infancy. The National Digitalization Policy of 2023 recognizes the importance of these emerging technologies and seeks to incorporate them into its strategies. This forward-looking approach ensures that the policy remains relevant and adaptable to the fast-paced technological advancements of today’s world.

· Inclusivity and Digital Divide

The National ICT Policy of 2013 aimed to bridge the digital divide between urban and rural areas, but the implementation fell short in certain aspects, resulting in limited impact on rural communities. The National Digitalization Policy of 2023 places greater emphasis on universal accessibility, recognizing that digital inclusion is crucial for equitable development. It acknowledges the need to ensure that citizens, regardless of their location, have access to digital services and skills. This focus on inclusivity indicates a more holistic approach to narrowing the digital divide.

· Collaboration and Public-Private Partnerships

While the National ICT Policy of 2013 did mention partnerships with the private sector, the National Digitalization Policy of 2023 takes this collaboration to a more strategic level. It recognizes the role of public-private partnerships (PPPs) in fostering innovation, entrepreneurship, and job creation. By actively involving the private sector in policy implementation, the National Digitalization Policy underscores the importance of cross-sectoral collaboration to drive digital transformation effectively. However, the National Digitalization Policy falls short of the involvement of civil society in the era of digital rights, internet freedoms, and respect for people’s privacy.

· Monitoring and Evaluation

The National ICT Policy of 2013 lacked robust mechanisms for monitoring and evaluation, which impacted its ability to track progress and make necessary adjustments. The National Digitalization Policy of 2023 addresses this shortcoming by outlining a comprehensive monitoring and evaluation plan. Regular assessments against performance indicators ensure that progress is measured, challenges are identified, and improvements are made in a timely manner.

Challenges and Opportunities

Despite its ambitious objectives, the policy faces challenges, including the high costs of ICT infrastructure development, inadequate rural electricity supply, and the need for localized digital content. Overcoming these challenges is crucial to realizing the policy’s potential. The policy will also face Malawi’s perennial challenge of beautiful policies but weak implementation due to funding constraints or just pure negligence towards the implementation of policies.

Impact and Transformative Potential

Malawi’s National Digitalization Policy has the potential to create significant transformation across sectors. By expanding ICT infrastructure, promoting digital literacy, and encouraging innovation, the policy can empower citizens to actively engage in the digital economy. The benefits range from improved service delivery to job creation and enhanced access to education and healthcare.

Is Malawi’s National Digitalization Policy Ambitious Enough for the Changing Digital Landscape?

In evaluating the policy’s ambition, it is essential to consider the ever-evolving technology landscape. While the policy sets a comprehensive foundation, the rapid pace of technological advancement suggests that ongoing adaptation is necessary. The policy must remain flexible and open to incorporating emerging technologies such as artificial intelligence, blockchain, and the Internet of Things; connect as many people to the Internet, increase the digital literacy of the majority, elevate digital transformation to the highest level of government, and develop a digital-first attitude for the majority (starting with decision makers). The National Digitalization Policy draws its inspiration from Malawi 2063 and the 10-year implementation plan (MIP1) to become an inclusively wealthy and self-reliant nation by 2063. While the Policy is clear on the grand statements made to aspire for greatness, it remains to be seen the strategies and day-to-day activities that will be made to drive this ambition.


Malawi’s National Digitalization Policy is a stride toward realizing the nation’s development aspirations through technology. By addressing historical challenges, setting strategic objectives, and navigating obstacles, Malawi aims to unlock ICT’s transformative potential. The policy’s success will hinge on its adaptability and responsiveness to technological shifts, ensuring that it remains a beacon guiding the nation’s path toward digital empowerment. As the world witnesses Malawi’s journey, the National Digitalization Policy stands as a testament to the nation’s commitment to harnessing technology for progress.

Retrieved from: https://medium.com/@kristungati/empowering-malawis-future-unpacking-the-national-digitalization-policy-2023-2028-d8774323e223 (6/10/23)